Anthropology of Autism

DailyDose_darkstroke Welcome to Medhum Mondays on the Daily Dose!

Some of you may know that in my other life, I (Brandy Schillace) am the managing editor of an international journal of cross-cultural health research: Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. This June 2015, the journal released a special issue on conceptualizing autism. This release featured articles that explore the social and cultural dimensions of autism across the globe, and reviewed the multitude of ways that families with children of autism navigate systems of social support and provide care for their children within their region and their community. As stated on the CMP blog, the entries “illuminate the human experience of caregiving and the often slippery, complex position of developmental disorders in the landscape of medicine, caregiving, and mental health treatment.” In that sense, then, they critically examine the human at the center of medicine, and thus intersect with our common mission in medical humanities. Today, I am reproducing an interview with the guest editor conducted by our blogista, Julia Knopes, at http://culturemedicinepsychiatry.com/–welcome Ariel and Julia!

 Dr. M. Ariel Cascio, guest editor of the special issue, is an anthropologist who studies the cultural and historical position of autism in Northern Italy. Here, the social media editor of Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, Julia Knopes, interviews Dr. Cascio about the special issue, and her perspective on the future of cross-cultural autism research.

(1) Can you tell us a little about the upcoming June 2015 special issue?

The special issue, “Conceptualizing autism around the globe,” shares anthropological (and allied field) research on autism in Brazil, India, Italy, and the United States. We talk about “conceptualizing” autism as a way to counter the idea that autism “is” or “means” one specific thing. Sometimes autism means the diagnosis measured by a certain instrument (such as ADOS), sometimes it means a more broadly defined set of characteristics (such as those in the DSM), sometimes it means an individual identity, and so many more things. The articles in this issue explore how autism is conceptualized at several different levels: in national policy, in treatment settings, and in the home.

 (2) What’s something new you learned about the anthropology of autism while working on this special issue?

I’ve just enjoyed the opportunity to greater familiarize myself with the group of scholars who are pursuing the anthropology of autism, and to work alongside scholars whose work I have long followed.

(3) So how did you become interested in the study of autism?

I’ve been studying autism since 2008. I actually came to anthropology before I came to autism, and when I first began learning about autism, I saw it as rich for anthropological inquiry (isn’t everything!) because of anthropology’s strengths in focusing on lived experience, challenging deficit narratives of so-called “disorders,” and placing medicine and psychiatry in sociocultural context.

(4) What was it like doing fieldwork in Italy? How do Italians see autism differently than other places in the world?

I’ve studied the autism concept more in Italy than in any other place in the world, and I’m very grateful to everyone there from whom I learned – autism professionals, family members of people with autism, and people on the spectrum themselves. I could hazard comparisons with the literature that address perceptions in other parts of the world – and some of these comparisons come through in the special issue – but for now I would like to focus on the strength of the rich description of the Italian context without external comparison. As my article in the special issue shows, autism professionals tended to take a social model of autism, focusing on creating environments that were tailored to the needs of people on the spectrum and structured to help them learn.

(5) What are some of the challenges you’ve faced in studying autism?

As in many areas of inquiry familiar to readers of CMP, it can be challenging to communicate information about my study to people who study autism in other fields (clinical, psychological, social work, etc.). A lot of research about autism takes a positivist stance, whereas my research takes an interpretivist stance and focuses on autism as a concept whose meaning may vary rather than a diagnosis measured in a particular way. Nonetheless, I love talking about my research interests with a broad audience because in many contexts (especially in the U.S.), so many people have personal or professional interest in autism and we can always have interesting and stimulating conversations.

(7) What’s something you think would surprise non-anthropologists about the anthropology of autism?

I would imagine non-anthropologists would be surprised by the anthropology of autism for the same reasons they might be surprised by anthropology (or medical anthropology) in general. For example, they might be surprised that anthropologists study autism all over the world, particularly if they think of the autism concept as something that represents a universal set of characteristics and experiences that are unaffected by context. The articles in this special issue really show that context matters in all conceptualizations of autism, from Brazil to the United States, from national policy to the family home.

 (8) Where do you see the anthropology of autism heading next?

I see the anthropology of autism becoming more inclusive. In her commentary, Pamela Block expresses optimism that the anthropology of autism will increasingly include researchers who identify as autistic themselves, and I agree. In addition to including more researchers with autism, I anticipate that the anthropology of autism will increasingly work to include participants with higher levels of support needs (those whom some people call “people with low-functioning autism”), and delve deeper into their lived experiences as well.

This interview was originally posted on May 6th 2015 on the Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry blog: http://culturemedicinepsychiatry.com/2015/05/06/june-2015-issue-preview-interview-with-guest-editor-m-ariel-cascio/

You can access the special issue on Conceptualizing Autism here: http://link.springer.com/journal/11013/39/2/page/1

 

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